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Era 1 — Pama-Nyungan (Aesthete). The Pama-Nyungan era marks a significant cultural and linguistic expansion in Australia during the mid-Holocene era. The Pama-Nyungan speakers, who spread across most of Australia’s vast territory, not only brought their diverse languages and social structures but also introduced new artistic and cultural practices. As they settled and thrived, they left an indelible mark on the continent’s landscape. Era 2 — Polynesians (Expansionist) In the final centuries of the first millennium BCE, the islands of Tonga, Samoa, and Uvea emerged as the cradle of Polynesian culture. In this vast expanse of ocean, the Polynesians honed innovative navigation techniques that enabled them to embark on ambitious Pacific conquests. Their seafaring prowess forever changed the course.